Posts tagged ‘cognitive development’

August 27, 2013

Small Children in Museums: Early Learning in Informal Learning Institutions

by Melissa Harding

IMG_0271Museums do not immediately seem like a great place for young children. After all, amid exhibits of dinosaur bones, famous paintings and priceless statues, a small child is often considered more likely to topple a vase than to appreciate it. However, young children truly benefit from their time in these informal learning institutions. The Institute for Museum and Library Sciences, the primary source of federal support for the nation’s 12,3000 libraries and 1,7500 museums, along with the Campaign for Grade-Level Reading, have recently put out a new report tackling the issue of early learning in museums. According to the report, Growing Young Minds, libraries and museums are “… welcoming places where children make discoveries, deepen common interests, expand words and knowledge, and connect their natural curiosity to the wider world.” Neuroscientists have found that the self-directed, experiential and content-rich learning that children experience in museums are important building blocks to a successful future.

Museums and libraries of all types – art, history, science, nature centers and gardens, zoos, aquaria and children’s museums – come together to form a network of learning. As part of this network, informal institutions play an important role in the community. They are anchors, providing safe spaces for public discourse, learning, and cultural and civic engagement; this is especially important for those who are vulnerable, such as those who are under-served, children, and the elderly. Museums and libraries also act as bridges to connect multiple generations, differing cultural or religious groups, and families together in the pursuit of education. They are teachers, offering exciting spaces for learning, engaging public programs and meaningful outreach. They are also the keepers of our collective culture, from the scientific to the historical and everything in between; not only do they act as stewards of culture, but they make it accessible to all.

These institutions are especially important in early childhood development. The more immersive the environment, the better able young children are to engage with it; what is more immersive than a museum? The repetition of visiting museums and libraries over and over again creates a strong engagement with the collections over time. Early learners are able to create familiar connections with their own lives, such as connecting the flowers in a botanical garden with those near their homes. Museums and libraries are also places where children can be lovingly introduced to objects that adults think are special, helping them to make personal and social connections to the plants, animals, and artifacts that are meaningful to their families. Additionally, learning behaviors exhibited by young children as they engage with these institutions – this includes everything from increased observation skills to the successful manipulation of objects –  provide evidence that the museum environment is an effective learning tool.

While the development of early cognitive skills – those that contribute to school-readiness like reading and writing skills – is wonderfully apparent, museums and libraries also help to boost non-cognitive skills, such an emotional regulation and focus. A 2004 report from the National Scientific Council on the Developing Child  shows that emotional regulation skills, cognitive, motor, and social skills develop together through environmental interaction. Called executive function, the non-cognitive area of development is boosted at the same time as cognitive skills; this gives early learning a two-fold importance, as early emotional development lays the foundation for academic success and vice versa. Together, these developmental skills help children to become motivated and excited learners.

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Museums contribute to this important stage in a child’s life by engaging children in learning. Libraries and museums all over the country are trying to prepare young minds for a successful future through interactive exhibits, games, and outreach programs that specifically target early learners. Educational staff at these institutions are creating content-rich, play-based programming that utilizes some of the best early learning practices and matches them with unique collections. These same programs also engage adults and prompt them to make their own connections and ask their own questions; this in turn helps to instill a love of learning in children, as well as give them an example after which to model their own curiosity.

Simply put, museums and libraries are not just great place for early learning, but they are centers of developmental importance. Many of these institutions have education and outreach in their missions and strive to engage the whole family at either free or subsidized costs.

Here are some ways to make the most of your local informal learning institutions:

1. Visit the library: Libraries have more than just books to offer (although free books are their own kind of treasure); many libraries offer story time programs, storytelling, parent-child interactive programming, outreach programs in the park and more.
2. Look for deals: Many institutions have several days a year where admission is free or discounted. Look also for online coupons for memberships or visitor passes. Check the websites of your local museums and see when these days are being offered.
3. Look for your favorite institutions out and about: Many of these places set up tables with engaging displays and activities at local festivals and fairs – sometimes they also have coupons for admission or other fun deals to offer. Some institutions also have a traveling science bus or Bookmobile that you can visit in a local park or near your school. They may even be offering free programs or story readings in your neighborhood. Keep your eyes on the website to find out where they will be next.
4. Purchase a membership: If possible, purchase a membership at your favorite museum; this is especially great in cold or nasty weather, when the museum provides a fun place to get out of the house for both kids and adults. Returning to the same museum or library over and again will really allow your child to become immersed in the collections and develop a sense of place.
5. Support your local library system and museums: Many of these organizations are considered to be non-profit institutions and require community support. Even a small donation may help them with anything from upkeep to staffing – it may even help local schools or under-served children gain admission.

“A library outranks any other one thing a community can do to benefit its people. It is a never failing spring in the desert.”
– Andrew Carnegie

To learn more about museums and early learning, check out the full IMLS Report, Growing Young Minds.

To learn more about early learning and child development, check out the great resources available through the Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University.

The above photos were taken by Cory Doman.

November 6, 2012

Creating Confidence in Children

by Melissa Harding

We have been talking quite a bit lately about the importance of outdoor experiences for children; not only is interaction with nature proven to increase rates of physical activity, social interaction and create a sense of well-being, but it also aides in cognitive development (Source). While it is important for children to spend time outdoors with a trusted adult, it also important for them to be unsupervised (or at least feel like they are).  Letting children guide themselves and play alone without the presence of adults is often called “free play”. Free play helps children gain a sense of accomplishment and self-efficacy; it is rich in competency-building experiences and opportunities for discovery. What this means is that children learn how to 1.) achieve goals and take risks, 2.) how to take action to solve problems and 3.) how to care for the natural world.

Sounds pretty good, right?

Free play in nature is full of graduated challenges and risks (Chawla, 2007). This allows a child to experience a sense of accomplishment, such as when a he realizes that he can climb a tree that was previously too high or roll over a stone that was too big. This growing sense of accomplishment emboldens children to step into leadership roles and helps them deal with the anxiety or fatigue that can accompany working on difficult problems. Children learn that success requires hard work and that being challenged is not always bad (Chawla, 2009). The absence of adults during free play creates a sense of autonomy and freedom as well. Children can run, yell and be “wild” and loud, which is often discouraged indoors.

Conveniently, nature itself is already a fully equipped playground for this type of learning. The outdoors are full of materials to engage children, such as water for splashing, mud for molding, sticks and leaves for building and trees for climbing. These natural materials are called “loose parts” and they are proven to promote cooperative learning and creative social play (Chawla, 2007).  This is comes naturally to children; a child instantly knows what to do with a stick, as any parent can confirm. Making swords, having tea parties, building fairy houses, and constructing forts are intuitive activities.

Finally, the natural world is full of things to discover. Nature is not static, but always changing; the same areas are different in each season, always providing new things to explore and observe. Compared to a video game or television show, these outdoor experiences are more sensory and engaging (Chawla, 2009).

The good news is, free play is as easy as going outside. If you let your child play freely in nature, he will guide himself. You probably have your own memories of being a wild child in the woods; studies show that those experiences have made you who you are today. Allowing your child a similar freedom to explore and learn will create an important avenue for cognitive development.

For more information on how you can support your child’s free play in nature, check out this post.

For further reading about the effects of nature on child development, here are links to the sources used in this post:
Chawla, L. (2009). Growing up Green: Becoming an agent of care for the natural world. Journal of Developmental Processes. (4)1
Chawla, L. (2007). Childhood experiences associated with care for the natural world. Children, Youth and Environments, 17(4), 144-170.

The above pictures were taken by Christie Lawry and Amanda Joy.

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