Posts tagged ‘bird watching’

November 12, 2014

Backyard Connections: Celebrate Urban Birds With Citizen Science!

by Melissa Harding

dove

Even though Phipps is located in the heart of the city of Pittsburgh, our visitors and staff are always reporting interesting animal sightings – from deer standing on the hill to hawks swooping down into the fields around the Conservatory. Urban areas may not seem at first glance to be a hospitable home to wildlife, but in reality there are many animals that have adapted well to the built environment. More than just a haven for squirrels and pigeons, the city is home to a variety of beautiful birds, deer, foxes and many other animals that are more commonly associated with woodland areas. People who live in these areas may not know that they share their space with such a wealth of critters, which is where citizen science comes in. Celebrate Urban Birds (CUB) is a project developed by the Cornell Lab of Ornithology whose primary purpose is to reach urban audiences who do not already participate in science, as well as to collect data about birds living in these environments. Birds are a perfect animal to study; they are attractive, plentiful, and easily spotted in any place.

Fall is a great time to think about birds, specifically helping them find food and shelter during the winter, as well as to provide safe and nourishing stops for them during migration. The more you are conscious of the bird populations that live near you, the better able you are to protect them from threats and encourage their habitation of your backyard or neighborhood. Additionally, participating in citizen science programs gives bird researchers useful information that they can’t collect on their own.

Why track bird populations? Bird populations are dynamic and constantly in a state of flux. Birds are always moving from place to place in search of food and shelter, especially during the colder months. Scientists need citizen help because no single team of scientists could ever completely document the complex distribution and movement of so many birds. The longer and more frequently bird populations are documented, the more useful the data becomes, especially as scientists begin to assess trends over time. Having so much data also helps scientists to ask more difficult questions, such as why bird diseases affect different regions or why the phenology of migration patterns changes from year to year.

Celebrate Urban Birds is a great way to participate in citizen science; the project focuses on just a few focal species, many of which are commonly sighted birds, and can involve as much or as little commitment as you desire. All you need to do to get started is to sign up and purchase your CUB kit from Cornell, then you are all set to start observing the birds around you. Here’s how you record your data:

  • Beforehand, pick a date, time, and place for watching birds.
  • Watch an area about the size of half a basketball court for ten minutes.
  • Record which of the focal birds you see and don’t see in your birdwatching area.
  • Send your data to CUB either online or on your paper form

Easy peasy, and you have just helped both birds and the scientists who study them! In addition to just watching birds and collecting data, CUB also supports related community programming in the arts, neighborhood greening and  habitat restoration. They offer mini-grants to support community festivals and really want to help people connect the importance of birds and nature to all aspects of their lives.

This project is great for scout and youth groups, homeschoolers, school classes, or any other group, as well as for families. To get started, check out the Celebrate Urban Birds website – there are resources to help you learn good observation skills, identify focal species and more! Even if you are new to birding, CUB is an easy way to dip your toe into the water of citizen science. Check it out today!

To learn how to participate in bird-related citizen science, visit the Cornell Lab website. Learn more about the Celebrate Urban Birds program here!

New to bird watching, check out Cornell’s excellent resources for identifying difficult birds, using binoculars, and more!

Learn more about citizen science projects to do with your family on the blog!

The above photo is copyrighted to Maria Corcacas and used courtesy of Cornell Lab of Ornithology.

July 24, 2014

Backyard Connections: Conducting a Feather Study

by Melissa Harding

IMG_0137

Late summer is an important time for birds. Fledglings are finally off on their own and the strenuous nesting period is over; for many birds, this is the ideal time to molt their feathers. Molting is the process by which birds replace their current feathers with new ones. Feathers are not alive; they are made of keratin, the same as human fingernails or hair, and therefore are completely replaced rather than healed when they are damaged.  Molting serves many purposes: to replace worn out feathers that have become too old, to revert from flamboyant breeding plumage back to dull-colored “basic” plumage, and replace juvenile feathers with mature ones. This is a very energy-intensive process, so it makes sense for it to occur during more restful times of the year.

Different birds molt at different times, some once a year and some more often. This is based on the age, sex and even habitat of the bird in question. Some birds can acquire adult plumage in one year, where others take years to reach sexual maturity. Of course, no bird can molt all of its feathers at one time – it would be bald and flightless! Rather, birds molt some or all of their feathers gradually over time. Since so many birds are shedding their old feathers, now is the perfect time to conduct a feather study on your backyard bird friends.

Many common feeder birds, such a goldfinches and sparrows, will be dropping their feathers in your yard. Since feathers typically comprise about 15-20% of a bird’s weight, you can be sure that they have a lot to lose! Collect those that you find on the ground and use them to learn more about feathers and flight with your child. Strive for a mix of downy and more structured feathers if you can find them.  Don’t have a yard or can’t find any feathers? Purchase some at the craft store; even though they are dyed, they are still real bird feathers and will work for this study.

IMG_0126For this study, you will need: flight feather, contour feather, down feather, ruler, binoculars (optional) and magnifying glass.

1. Feather observation: Lay out your feathers on a table and do a thorough initial observation. How are these different types of feathers similar? How are they different? Measure each one with a ruler – which is bigger and which is smaller? Use each to fan your face and observe how it feels – which ones move the air? What is the color and shape of each feather? Is it damaged? If so, what do you think happened to it?

2. Flight feathers: Flight feathers are perhaps the ones that we most commonly see on the ground. This feather has a hollow, central tube called a “shaft”; it runs down the length of the feather. There is also a broad, flat bit of feather along each side of the shaft that is called a “vane”. How does this feather look to you? Run your finger from the bottom of the vane to the top, noting how smooth it feels. This vane is composed of little individual barbs that resemble skinny hairs coming off of the shaft. Each of these barbs has tiny hooks along its length that zip together to form the vane. Run your finger from the top of the feather to the bottom, breaking apart the smooth vane and exposing the barbs to view. Using a magnifying glass, look for the hooks along the barbs. Now smooth the barbs back together by running your fingers up the feather. This action is similar to the act of preening, in which birds smooth out their feathers and groom them.

3. Down feathers: Down feathers look like what you would find inside of a pillow. They are small and fluffy. Feel the feather. Can you preen it with your fingers into a single vane? Why or why not? The barbs on these feathers lack hooks, making them fluffy rather than structured. Down feathers are used for insulating the bird; the fluff created by each feather creates an air pocket against the bird’s body, which keeps in heat and allows the bird to maintain a comfortable body temperature.

IMG_01304. Contour feathers: Contour feathers look like a cross between a down and a flight feather. This feather is smooth at the top, made of a small vane with barbs that form a triangle-like shape. The bottom of the feather is fluffy, called “pennaceous”. Feel both parts of the feather. What use to do you think it had for the bird? These make up the majority of a bird’s feathers; they provide most of the bird’s patterning and coloration, as well as cover the bird to protect its sensitive skin and give it an aerodynamic shape. Contour feathers overlap each other on a bird’s body like shingles.

5. Bird watching: If you have binoculars, watch some birds out your window and notice the feathers on their bodies. Notice how they are attached in patterns. Can you see the shingle pattern of the contour feather on their bodies? Do you see how the flight feathers are arranged on the wings? Do you see any birds that look like they are fluffing out their feathers? They are pushing air into the spaces between their down. What else do you notice about the birds that you are watching? Look for interesting behaviors; watch them eat and interact with each other.

A feather study is a fun way to get your child interested in birds and how they fly. If you want to watch the birds in your yard more regularly, consider putting up a bird feeder close to your window and investing in a pair of binoculars. Bird watching is a rewarding hobby for many people, even children, and a great way to connect them to the nature in your backyard. Birds are visible, beautiful and often very funny – they the best backyard critter with which to make a real connection. Consider making bird watching a family activity!

To learn more about birds and bird behavior, check out the Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Check out this article to read more about molting.

To read more about connecting with backyard critters, check out our post “Who Lives in Your Yard“.

To learn more about feathers in general, check out the excellent book, Bird Feathers by S. David Scott and Casey MacFarland.

The above photos were taken by Cory Doman, photography intern.

August 26, 2013

Backyard Connections: Conducting a Feather Study

by Melissa Harding

IMG_0137

Late summer is an important time for birds. Fledglings are finally off on their own and the strenuous nesting period is over; for many birds, this is the ideal time to molt their feathers. Molting is the process by which birds replace their current feathers with new ones. Feathers are not alive; they are made of keratin, the same as human fingernails or hair, and therefore are completely replaced rather than healed when they are damaged.  Molting serves many purposes: to replace worn out feathers that have become too old, to revert from flamboyant breeding plumage back to dull-colored “basic” plumage, and replace juvenile feathers with mature ones. This is a very energy-intensive process, so it makes sense for it to occur during more restful times of the year.

Different birds molt at different times, some once a year and some more often. This is based on the age, sex and even habitat of the bird in question. Some birds can acquire adult plumage in one year, where others take years to reach sexual maturity. Of course, no bird can molt all of its feathers at one time – it would be bald and flightless! Rather, birds molt some or all of their feathers gradually over time. Since so many birds are shedding their old feathers, now is the perfect time to conduct a feather study on your backyard bird friends.

Many common feeder birds, such a goldfinches and sparrows, will be dropping their feathers in your yard. Since feathers typically comprise about 15-20% of a bird’s weight, you can be sure that they have a lot to lose! Collect those that you find on the ground and use them to learn more about feathers and flight with your child. Strive for a mix of downy and more structured feathers if you can find them.  Don’t have a yard or can’t find any feathers? Purchase some at the craft store; even though they are dyed, they are still real bird feathers and will work for this study.

IMG_0126For this study, you will need: flight feather, contour feather, down feather, ruler, binoculars (optional) and magnifying glass.

1. Feather observation: Lay out your feathers on a table and do a thorough initial observation. How are these different types of feathers similar? How are they different? Measure each one with a ruler – which is bigger and which is smaller? Use each to fan your face and observe how it feels – which ones move the air? What is the color and shape of each feather? Is it damaged? If so, what do you think happened to it?

2. Flight feathers: Flight feathers are perhaps the ones that we most commonly see on the ground. This feather has a hollow, central tube called a “shaft”; it runs down the length of the feather. There is also a broad, flat bit of feather along each side of the shaft that is called a “vane”. How does this feather look to you? Run your finger from the bottom of the vane to the top, noting how smooth it feels. This vane is composed of little individual barbs that resemble skinny hairs coming off of the shaft. Each of these barbs has tiny hooks along its length that zip together to form the vane. Run your finger from the top of the feather to the bottom, breaking apart the smooth vane and exposing the barbs to view. Using a magnifying glass, look for the hooks along the barbs. Now smooth the barbs back together by running your fingers up the feather. This action is similar to the act of preening, in which birds smooth out their feathers and groom them.

3. Down feathers: Down feathers look like what you would find inside of a pillow. They are small and fluffy. Feel the feather. Can you preen it with your fingers into a single vane? Why or why not? The barbs on these feathers lack hooks, making them fluffy rather than structured. Down feathers are used for insulating the bird; the fluff created by each feather creates an air pocket against the bird’s body, which keeps in heat and allows the bird to maintain a comfortable body temperature.

IMG_01304. Contour feathers: Contour feathers look like a cross between a down and a flight feather. This feather is smooth at the top, made of a small vane with barbs that form a triangle-like shape. The bottom of the feather is fluffy, called “pennaceous”. Feel both parts of the feather. What use to do you think it had for the bird? These make up the majority of a bird’s feathers; they provide most of the bird’s patterning and coloration, as well as cover the bird to protect its sensitive skin and give it an aerodynamic shape. Contour feathers overlap each other on a bird’s body like shingles.

5. Bird watching: If you have binoculars, watch some birds out your window and notice the feathers on their bodies. Notice how they are attached in patterns. Can you see the shingle pattern of the contour feather on their bodies? Do you see how the flight feathers are arranged on the wings? Do you see any birds that look like they are fluffing out their feathers? They are pushing air into the spaces between their down. What else do you notice about the birds that you are watching? Look for interesting behaviors; watch them eat and interact with each other.

A feather study is a fun way to get your child interested in birds and how they fly. If you want to watch the birds in your yard more regularly, consider putting up a bird feeder close to your window and investing in a pair of binoculars. Bird watching is a rewarding hobby for many people, even children, and a great way to connect them to the nature in your backyard. Birds are visible, beautiful and often very funny – they the best backyard critter with which to make a real connection. Consider making bird watching a family activity!

To learn more about birds and bird behavior, check out the Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Check out this article to read more about molting.

To read more about connecting with backyard critters, check out our post “Who Lives in Your Yard“.

To learn more about feathers in general, check out the excellent book, Bird Feathers by S. David Scott and Casey MacFarland.

The above photos were taken by Cory Doman, photography intern.

Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 199 other followers

%d bloggers like this: