Archive for ‘Toddlers’

October 17, 2014

Little Sprouts Love Their Favorite Fruits!

by Melissa Harding


We had Little Sprouts popping up everywhere at Phipps today. It was our first Little Sprouts program of the fall, My Favorite Fruits, and we had a blast! In fact, this program was so fun that we ran two sessions of our popular series for campers ages 2-3 and their grown-ups in one morning. Campers learned about fruits using all five of their senses through stories, songs, movement and exploration.

To begin, campers played with lemon-scented salt dough and cloud dough in our sensory bins. Campers love the tactile experience of putting their hands in soft and interesting materials; adding natural essential oils makes them even more sensory!

After singing our welcome song together, campers met Sal the Sloth, our sloth puppet and resident fruit-lover. Sal helped campers explore their mystery boxes for pictures of fruit, which they used to play a fun matching game with him. Sal also introduced the campers to his friend the banana plant, whose job it is to grow bananas for us all to eat. Campers explored the banana plant with their senses.

Next, campers and their caregivers worked together in the circle to make apple trees; adults traced their Sprouts’ hands on cardboard and helped them to attach colored pom-pom apples to their trees. After craft, campers ate a snack of apples and bananas while Miss Hanna read The Apple Pie Tree by Zoe Hall. Once snack was eaten, campers went to visit the banana in our Fruit and Spice Room and see a banana plant all grown up!

We all had such a fun time and can’t wait for next month’s Little Sprouts program!

Check out more photos from camp in the slideshow below:

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Our next Little Sprouts Singles program, My Desert Adventure, is scheduled for November 21, 9:30-10:30 am and 11:00 am-noon. If you would like to sign up your child for a future Little Sprouts program, please contact Sarah at (412)441-4442 ext. 3925.

For a complete list of all our season camp offerings, please visit our website. We hope to see you there!

The above pictures were taken by Science Education and Research staff and volunteers.

August 27, 2014

Home Connections: Sensory Play for Young Children

by Melissa Harding


Our senses are how we learn about the world. When we talk about “observation skills“, we are really talking about using our senses to understand what is going on around us. In fact, observation is the foundation of all science; it causes us to ask questions and seek answers through experimentation. Observation skills are important. That is why we work so hard to make sure that our students are spending their time observing the natural world and why we care so much about promoting observation skills in this space. One of our favorite ways to help young children learn to use their senses is through the use of sensory bins. Sensory bins are common in any early childhood settings, from pre-schools to nature centers, and provide children with a tactile way to learn about color, shapes, plants and animals.

We have developed a variety of sensory bins for different age groups, based on what is appropriate and safe for children in different stages of development. Here are a few of our most successful bins:

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Little Sprouts (ages 2 and older)
Children ages 2-3 are still learning many gross and fine motor skills. They are not yet able to articulate well with their hands, grasp objects with care or perform detailed actions. With this mind, sensory bins for this age group are meant to stimulate the senses and give children practice stacking, building, drawing and molding shapes, and just generally manipulating objects. Adding fresh scents, bright colors and pleasing textures makes these bins fun for older children as well.

Day 4 003Cloud Dough: Cloud dough is a great way to add texture and scent to your sensory bins. Made with a base of flour and vegetable oil, the resulting “dough” is both crumbly and holds a shape, rather like wet sand. Try adding cookie cutters or shaped ice cube trays to the bin.

To make cloud dough, you will need: 7 cups any type of flour and 1 cup vegetable oil. Mix it all together until the oil is evenly dispersed throughout the flour. Use your hands.

Tracing Salt: Tracing salt is made with ordinary table salt and essential oils. A thin layer of this scented salt is put in a shallow bin for manipulation; this bin is great for promoting literacy and creativity, as children can trace letters, numbers or pictures into the salt and then erase it and start again. It’s a fun tool to use when practicing letters, shapes, or numbers. We like to add feathers and paint brushes to give our students something to make shapes with besides their fingers, but anything soft and stiff would work.

To make tracing salt, you will need: 3 cups iodized salt and 5-7 drops essential oil. Place one cup salt in a bag and add 2-3 drops essential oil. Close bag and massage the contents to mix. Add essential oil to achieve the scent you desire; remember, less is often more with strong oils. Follow these steps until all salt has been scented. Add drops of food coloring to the salt for optional color if desired.

Salt Dough: Salt dough is a great go-to staple. All children love to play with salt dough or other play dough. Salt dough is made with flour, salt and water; the resulting dough is moldable and will even dry into permanent shapes if left out for a few days. However, this dough is able to last for up to a month in a sealed sensory bin. Try adding herbs, spices, food coloring, grains and even glitter to create extra-special dough.

To make salt dough, you will need: 2 cups flour, 1 cup salt and 1 cup water. Mix salt and flour, gradually stirring in water until it forms a dough-like consistency. Form a ball with your dough and knead it for at least 5 minutes with your hands, adding flour as needed to create a smooth texture.

Dance Scarves: Dance scarves are perfect for sensory play: they come in a rainbow of colors, they are soft and floaty, and they can be made into a costume. They are fun to twirl with, to throw up into the air like fall leaves, and to pile up and lay on. Children will pull them all out of the bin and play with them for hours.


Seedling Scientists (ages 4 and older)
Children ages 4-5 are learning more fine motor skills, spatial skills, independence, and the ability to self-regulate. They need to practice manipulating small objects, whether pouring things from one container to another or nesting differently sized objects into each other. These bins are not appropriate for younger children, as the objects in these bins can cause a choking hazard to young children who like to put things in their mouth during play.

IMG_0010Seeds: Seeds of all shapes and sizes fill the seeds bin; some seeds, like corn, are recognizable and others, like lotus seeds, are odd and interesting to children. This bin gives children a chance to observe and identify a variety of seeds, as well as fun material to fill up containers and serve as tea. Children like to run their fingers through the pleasant texture of the seeds and pick out seeds of different size and shape. Add some measuring cups, funnels, wide tubes and other containers in odd shapes to help children manipulate the seeds.

Caps: While a bin full of empty bottle caps seems like an odd choice, this repurposed material is perfect for early learners. Caps of all shapes, sizes and colors fill our bin. Children love to stack them into towers, fit them inside each other, and use them for pretend play.

Colored Rice: Rice is another material that feels silky against the skin and makes a pleasing sound when poured from cup to cup. Color your rice with vinegar and food coloring, or use spices and botanical dyes, to create a rainbow of beautiful colors. Rice also makes a great base for small world play, whether you are hiding plastic bugs in green rice, pretending your blue rice is an ocean, or using yellow rice to simulate the desert.

To make colored rice, you will need: 1 cup of rice, 1 tsp of white vinegar, and several drops of food coloring. In a bag or bowl, mix rice, vinegar and food coloring and shake/stir to combine. Place colored rice on a piece of aluminum foil to dry before use.

Dirt: What kid doesn’t love to play in the dirt? Potting soil is a safe, clean way to play with dirt. Add kid-sized shovels and rakes, buckets, and plastic bugs to make this bin into a mini garden patch. Be sure to use sterile dirt, rather than dirt from your yard, as soil from outside may contain insects, fungus or bacteria that could be potentially harmful.

Adding scents: Adding essential oils is a natural and safe way to add a variety of scents to your bins. Additionally, many essential oils are naturally antibacterial and can keep your bins both clean and sweet-smelling. Consider using lavender as a calming scent, mint for stimulation, or citrus for a fresh scent. As a fun alternative, try adding herbs like fresh lavender blossoms or rosemary leaves for added texture and scent.

About choking hazards: For children under the age of 3, choking can be a danger when dealing with small objects. Any object smaller in size than a toilet paper tube can be hazardous if ingested and cause children to choke. For this reason, always supervise your children when they are interacting with sensory bins and choose materials that are appropriate for their age and level of development.

Remember, these are just a few sensory bins suggestions. There are many objects that you have in your home already that would create wonderful sensory experiences for your child. Shaving crème, water and bubbles, mud, and play sand are items that would make some delightfully messy sensory bins as well.

For more sensory bin ideas, check out these great websites:

The Imagination Tree
Teaching Preschool
Happy Hooligans

To learn more about the importance of observation, check out this post!

The above photos were taken by Cory Doman. 

August 26, 2014

Increasing Scientific Literacy Through Museum Research

by Melissa Harding


Every day, scientific research is being done on any number of topics. A quick browse through PLOS One, a peer-reviewed, open-access online journal for scientific papers of all kinds, reveals topics such as: molecular threading, NaOH debittering, and elevated levels of carbon monoxide in mouse exhalations. While these are surely important topics to medicine, agriculture and other fields of study, they don’t mean very much to the average person. In fact, much of the research that goes on in science often does not make it into the popular culture; sometimes this work is very specialized, sometimes it is perceived as irrelevant, or sometimes it is difficult to understand. This results in a poor understanding of what a scientist is and does. Luckily, there are many researchers who realize this and are trying to break down the barriers between scientists and the public. The Living Laboratory, an educational, on-site research program developed at the Museum of Science, Boston, is one such organization.

In the Living Lab model, scientists in the fields of child developmental and psychological research conduct their studies at local museums, recruiting study participants from museum visitors. These researchers then work with museum educators to communicate  their work to visitors through innovative activities and one-on-one interactions with the researchers themselves. These studies occur on the museum floor, in plain view of visitors, allowing them to be drawn in to the process. Participants and viewers alike learn how science is applicable to their own lives, how research is conducted, what scientists look and act like and how to answer tough questions using the scientific method.  Studies on the effectiveness of this approach have found that watching children participate in research studies increases adult awareness of child development as a science and that one-on-one conversations between adults and scientists increase adult understanding of the scientific process and their overall scientific literacy.

TIMG_0157he Living Laboratory has been so successful that it has spawned the National Living Lab Initiative. This program has created “hubs” in regions across the country to connect museums and researchers together. In addition to The Museum of Science, Boston, the Maryland Science Center, the Madison Children’s Museum and the Oregon Museum of Science & Industry act as hub leaders, helping other museums to adopt a similar model.

At Phipps, we are working with researchers from Carnegie Mellon University’s Cognitive Development Lab to provide a museum setting for their work.  CMU’s Cognitive Development Lab is interested in gaining a better understanding of “how children generalize knowledge they have to new situations, how children acquire language, what role language plays in knowledge generalization, how children maintain focused attention, and what role focused attention plays in acquisition of new knowledge.” They do this playing games with their subjects that are designed to take show researchers how children think and how their thinking changes with development.

Two of the games that they are currently playing with our visitors are the “Help Zippo” game and the “Perceptual Similarity” game. The first, Help Zippo, investigates how children organize plants and animals based on the relationships between them. Children are given cards with black and white pictures of plants and animals and asked to sort them onto a game board four different times. Each time, researchers are looking to see how they are grouped and whether children can group the pictures in multiple ways. The Perceptual Similarity game tests the degree to which children can use their knowledge of how objects are categorized in a situation in which they are presented with conflicting information. Children are shown a set of three pictures, two of which are similar and one of which is close, but slight different (e.g. a lemon, a lemon wedge and a yellow tennis ball). Children are told that the similar objects go together and asked to pick which two match based on physical similarity. Both of these games test category-based reasoning, but the Cognitive Development Lab also tests other topics, such as the development of focused attention during pre-school years and the effect of classroom visual environment on allocating attention and learning.

IMG_0147The games that the Cognitive Development Lab plays with children are different each time, based on the different studies that are being run. Phipps is not the only source of study participants, so the study is conducted in a secluded, quiet spot where variables like noise and stimulation can be controlled. While they watch their child participate, parents are given information on the study itself to help them understand more about the research question being investigated. This is a wonderful way for parents and children to engage with the research and, as the research questions often change quickly, there are many eager return customers.

Having researchers working in public settings, like museums and libraries, is a great way to involve families in the scientific process. Through participation in studies and interaction with scientists, visitors, researchers and museums can all benefit!

If you are a museum professional and would like to learn more about a Living Lab hub near you, check out the National Living Lab Initiative.

To learn more about the research being conducted by CMU’s Child Development Lab, check out their great website; there is also information for parents if you are local to Pittsburgh and would like to participate.

The above photos of the CMU Cognitive Development Lab team were taken by our photography intern, Cory Doman.

August 22, 2014

Summer Camp Recap: We Like Dirt!

by Melissa Harding

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Summer Camp Recap is our seasonal segment featuring our summer camp programs. This is the place for camp parents to find pictures of their campers in action and see all the fun things we did all week. It’s also a great place for educators to pick up craft, story and lesson ideas for their own early childhood programs!

We Like Dirt is our last camp for the summer. A fitting end, since it is one of our favorites! This week, campers learned what dirt is, where is comes from and who lives in it. They spent the week exploring the ecosystem under the ground, playing games, singing songs and crafting with mud. Campers created mud pies, dug for bugs, and even decorated T-shirts with “muddy” animal footprints. They loved making friends with worms and learning all about how they turn plants into soil.

Check out the slide show below for more images from the week!

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For more pictures from Summer Camp, check out our Facebook page!

The above photos were taken Science Education and Research staff.

August 18, 2014

Summer Camp Recap: Art Outside

by Melissa Harding

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Summer Camp Recap is our seasonal segment featuring our summer camp programs. This is the place for camp parents to find pictures of their campers in action and see all the fun things we did all week. It’s also a great place for educators to pick up craft, story and lesson ideas for their own early childhood programs!

Art Outside turns traditional art camps on their heads by focusing on the plants and materials that make the art, rather than the art itself. Campers learned why using recycled materials in art projects is important, how the plants they pick for their projects grow and why storytelling is a great way to share what you learn. Throughout the week, campers made potato puppets, nature weavings and tie-dyed T-shirts. They created art journals and used them to sketch plants in the Conservatory and complete observation and drawing exercises.  Campers loved putting on puppet shows and gathering flowers in the gardens.

Check out the slide show below for more images from the week!


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For more pictures from Summer Camp, check out our Facebook page!

The above photos were taken Science Education and Research staff.

August 15, 2014

Check Out Our Upcoming Fall Programs!

by Melissa Harding


Summer is almost over and it’s time to sign up for fall camps!
Our new rack card is hot off the presses and we wanted to share our upcoming programs with you.
Click on the image to enlarge it.

Rack Card Fall 2014

The above photo was taken by Cory Doman.


August 9, 2014

It’s a Bird, It’s a Plane…It’s a Child in Costume: Dramatic Play for Early Learners

by Melissa Harding


Over the years, Phipps has been visited by many important dignitaries; besides the President of the United States, we have also been honored by visits from Batman, Spiderman and a variety of princesses. Of course, those last few have come to us in the form of children in costume. As any parent can attest, children love to dress up, especially for summer camp. Both boys and girls enjoy wearing costumes, no matter how make-shift, and taking on the persona of that person or animal. While it may seem like just a phase that young children go through, it is actually rather critical; whether pretending to be superheroes, royalty, animals, or anything else that strikes their fancy, dressing up is a core part of play for early learners. Costume play is a form of imaginative play, acting out the stories and emotions of others; this kind of play is important to both cognitive and social development. Research has found that imaginative play can increase language skills, as well as a child’s ability to express both positive and negative emotions. It can also increase their empathy for others and help them to better self-regulate their own emotions and behaviors. (Self-regulation, a form of executive function, has been addressed before in this space). When children use toys and costumes to engage in dramatic scenes, they learn communication and problem-solving skills as well.

Clearly, dramatic play and dress-up are important parts of both childhood and child development. In fact, dramatic play makes up the majority of all types of play for children ages 3-7. This type of play is open-ended. While watching TV and playing video games are alluring, if passive, activities that children enjoy, toys and even ordinary objects provide a more active, creative experience. Other examples of dramatic play besides costume play are puppetry, role-playing and fantasy-play. This can involve re-enacting a scene from either their real lives or a story they’ve heard. It can also take on fantasy elements as children start to make up their own stories. This is how children learn to make sense of the world around them and how it relates to their lives. Much like reading fiction helps children explore new people and situations, so does dramatic play.

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While many children naturally play pretend with anything around them, others may need more encouragement to use their imaginations during play. Creating an environment that supports imaginative play is a good way to help those children learn to develop creatively.

Ways to promote imaginative and dramatic play for your child;
1. Set-up a role-play corner in your home or classroom: A play kitchen, post-office, classroom, grocery store or other location can help children feel like they have a “stage” to play on. This stage will encourage your child to act out more dramatic scenes. It can also help children to learn desired behaviors and skills; for example, stocking your corner with placemats, play dishes and silverware can help your child learn to set the table. If you don’t room for a permanent play space, allow your child to set up temporary play spaces, such as creating blanket caves and pillow forts that can easily be put away at bed time.
2. Provide materials for play: Even if you don’t have room for a corner to be devoted to a larger dramatic play set, you can still create small collections of items that your child can use to play: pots, spoons and an apron; envelopes, old greeting cards and stickers (or “stamps”); a small chalkboard, chalk and books; a toy cash register and clean, empty food containers. Try to provide items that children can pretend to read or can write on, as this promotes literacy. While younger children rely on realistic materials, older children will start to substitute, such as using a piece of rope for a fire hose or a stick for a sword. This material substitution shows that the child is learning abstract thinking and use of symbols.
3. Read more stories: Parents who read or tell stories at bed-time are more likely to foster imaginative play.
4. Make costumes together: Making costumes with your child is a fun way to promote learning about specific animals, plants and people.  However, don’t feel like they need to be works of art and built to last a lifetime. We create simple animal and insect costumes for our students to help them better dramatize the actions of our lesson topics without ever touching fabric or a needle. Simple wings can be made from poster board and yarn, or antennae from cardboard and pipe cleaners. You don’t need to know how to sew to create fun costumes that your child will love!
5. Provide lots of play time: Give your child uninterrupted time to play pretend. It can take children some time to stage their pretend play, especially when several children are playing together.
6. Let children control the play: While your child may want to play pretend with you, it is important that you let them control the play and take your cues from them. Remember, when adults are telling children how to play, it’s not really play.

The good news is that children will find a way to play pretend in just about situation. The best way to support this important developmental activity is just to let them do it.

To learn more about the benefits of imaginative play, check out this great article by Early Childhood News.

Read this post to learn about the importance of play to child development.

Check out The Importance of Play and get practical ideas for creating play-positive environments over at The Imagination Tree.

The above photos were taken by Science Education and Research staff and interns.


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